オンライン英会話でよく使う文法用語解説その2「動詞」

このシリーズでは、リンガルボックスのようなオンライン英会話でよく使う文法用語の解説を行っています。

Part1: 「名詞」

Verbs(動詞)

動詞は、文章の中で動作や出来事、状態を表します。
例:allow fix, hug, jumb, open, etc..

また動詞には、現在、過去、未来などの時間軸に併せて個別のルールが適用されます。

動詞の種類について

1.”Action/Dynamic Verbs”と”State Verbs”

1-1. Action/Dynamic Verbs(動作動詞)

動作動詞は、人や動物などが行う行為や考えていることなどの動作を表す動詞です。動作動詞は、進行形(continuous tense)の形を取ることが出来ます。

例:allow, call, hug, fix, open

Past Present Future
Simple(single) I visited. I visit. I will visit.
Continuous I was visiting. I am visting. I will be visiting.
Perfect I had visited . I have visited . I will have visited.

1-2.”State Verbs(状態動詞)”

動きを伴わない(少ない)、状態を表す動詞です。状態動詞は進行形(continuous tense)の形を取りません。

例:have, know, like, love, want, etc..

Past Present Future
Simple(single) I believed you. I believe you. I will believe you.
Perfect I had believed you . I have believed you . I will have believed you.

2.”Being Verbs/Verbs of Being”

2-1.”Being Verbs”(be動詞)

be動詞は存在を表す動詞です。

例:is, am, are, etc..

Past Present Future
Simple(single) I was there.
It was delicious.
I am a student.
He is a writer.
I will be a chef.
She will be fine.
Simple(Plural) We were there.
They were there.
We are students.
They are students.
We will be there.
They will be there.
Perfect(Single) I had been there.
It has been raining.
I have been reading.
He has been playing baseball.
I will have been staying home.
He will have been staying home.
Perfect(Plural) We had been there.
They had been there.
We have been playing football.
They have been studying English.
We will have been sweeping home.
They will have been sleeping.

3.”Linking Verbs”


3-1.”Linking Verbs”(連結動詞)

Linking Verbs(連結動詞)は、主語と主語に関する情報を接続する役割を持つ動詞です。

例:is, are, seem, etc..
例文1: I am a student.

amは主語”I”と”a student”を接続しています。

例文2: It seems good idea

seemsは主語”It”と”good idea”を接続しています。

4.”Regular Verbs”と”Irregular Verbs”

動詞は、過去、現在などの時間軸に併せて”visit”, “visited”などと形を変えます。

形が規則的に変わるものを”Regular Verbs”規則動詞、不規則に変わるものを”Irregular Verbs”(不規則動詞)と言います。

4-1. Regular Verbs(規則動詞)

例:

Present Past Past Perfect
feel feel felt felt
visit visit visited visited

4-2. “Irregular Verbs”(不規則動詞)

例:

Present Past Past Perfect
become become became become
go go went gone
put put put put

リスト:

Verb – 動詞
Action/Dynamic Verb – 動作動詞
State Verb – 状態動詞
Being Verb – Be動詞
Linking Verb – 連結動詞
Regular Verb – 規則動詞
Irregular Verb – 不規則動詞
その他重要な用語:

Present Tense – 現在形
Past Tense – 過去形
Future Tense – 未来形
Continuous Tense – 進行形
Present Continuous Tense – 現在進行形
Past Continuous Tense – 過去進行形
Future Continuous Tense – 未来進行形
Perfect Tense – 完了形
Present Perfect Tense – 現在完了形
Past Perfect Tense – 過去完了形
Future Perfect Tense – 未来完了形


ライターについて
フィリピンにて2012年8月よりリンガルボックスを運営中。